Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4

Read & Download Õ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Tony Joseph

Read & Download Õ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Tony Joseph Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4 Tony Joseph µ 4 Read Who are we Indians Where did we come from Many of us believe our ancestors have lived in South Asia since 'time immemorial' But as it turns out 'time immemorial' may not have been all that long ago To tell us the story of our ancestry journalist Tony Joseph goes 65000 years into the past when a band of modern humans or Homo sapiens first made their way from Africa into the Indian subcontinent Citing recent DNA evidence he traces the subseuent large migrations of modern humans into India of agric. Everyone in our subcontinent Pakistanis Indians Bangladeshis please read EARLY INDIANS by Tony Joseph Understand where we re coming from how rich and diverse our roots are and how superficial our divisions are And it s all based on scientific evidence not ideological wishful thinking

review Early Indians

Early Indians

Read & Download Õ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Tony Joseph Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4 Tony Joseph µ 4 Read Ulturalists from Iran between 7000 and 3000 BCE and pastoralists from the Central Asian Steppe between 2000 and 1000 BCE among others As Joseph unravels our history using the results of genetic and other research he takes head on some of the most controversial and uncomfortable uestions of Indian history Who were the Harappans Did the 'Aryans' really migrate to India Are North Indians genetically different from South Indians And are the various castes genetically distinct groups This book relies. As India enters the third decade of the twenty first century one would presume that modern science would form the focus of an emerging nation of young people like India But uantum computing artificial intelligence and advanced medical research do not dominate the conversations Instead India is bogged down by uestions such as who is acceptable as an Indian citizen and how to build a very tall temple in Ayodhya etc The ruling elite is busy pushing the idea of one nation one language one culture with the North Indian Hindi speaking upper caste Hindu as the uintessential Indian Naturally the hundreds of millions of Indians who do not belong in this narrow category recoil instinctively against such a fabrication of the truth That is why it is of great importance that every educated person in India must read this seminal work by Tony Joseph The book provides a gripping account of the pre history of India going back 65000 years It combines recent advances in the studies of the human genome with philology archaeology and anthropology to make a compelling case I found the book difficult to put down even though the sections on genetics needed careful reading to understand their import on the story of the early Indians I should hasten to add that the book is eminently accessible to everyone without having to be well versed in genetics or archaeology or linguistics When I finished the book I was in wonderment and awe of the insights of modern science and how it can stitch together and decode events that took place than 65000 years ago The precision and detail with which science can elucidate India s pre history leaves me proud and humbled at the same time Let us get into this fascinating storyConclusive DNA evidence now shows that modern humans outside of Africa are all descendants of a single population of Out of Africa OoA migrants They moved into Asia around 70000 years ago They then spread around the world replacing their genetic cousins like the Homo Neanderthalensis reaching India about 65000 years ago They are called the First Indians Because they got to India early India had the largest human population even 20000 years ago Around 7000 BCE migrants from the Zagros mountains in today s Iran arrived and mixed with the First Indians These people helped spread the agriculture that was the catalyst for the creation of the great urban civilization called the Harappan the author prefers this term instead of the Indus valley civilization today It developed over five thousand years reaching its peak between 2600 BCE and 1900 BCE However centuries of drought caused its decline destroying its irrigation systems and agriculture The Harappans had no option but to migrate elsewhere into India towards the south and the east Around 2000 BCE migrants from east Asia arrived in India bringing with them their rice variety and their languages Mundari and Khasi spoken in the eastern and central parts of India even today are examples of these Austro Asiatic languages India owes them the hybridization of the indica and japonica rice subspecies Finally the last migrants to India came between 2000 and 1000 BCE from Central Asia and the Eurasian Steppe They were pastoral people who spoke Indo European languages and called themselves Aryan They were rural people spoke proto Sanskrit emphasized pastoralism and cattle breeding over the urban settlement They were a warrior like people and their influx was largely male driven Conseuently they created a patriarchal patrilocal and patrilineal Vedic culture They mixed with the Austro Asiatics and the Harappans in various proportions resulting in the Indians of today Where does all this research leave the many modern day myths in Indian history today The book gives scientific data to establish the following conclusions1 The closest direct living descendants of the First Indians today are found in the Little Andaman Island They are the Onge people who number barely a hundred down from 670 in the year 19002 We now know who the most authentic Indians are They are the Adivasistribals who form about 8% of India s population The tribal woman today is most likely to be carrying the deepest rooted and widest spread mtDNA lineage M2 in India Genetically she represents all of our histories with little left out The tribals are THE Indians 3 It is ridiculous to say that Indian culture is synonymous with AryanSanskritVedic culture Instead it is the result of interaction adoption and adaptation among those who brought Indo European languages proto Sanskrit speaking Aryans to India and those who were already well settled inhabitants proto Dravidian speaking Harappans 4 Many popular practices in India today are examples of cultural continuity from the Harappan civilization rather than from the Vedic corpus Some of are the many Harappan traditions we carry on today area Houses built around courtyardsb Bullock cartsc the way women wear banglesd the manner of tree worshipe Sanctity of the peepul treef the kulladhhandleless clay cupg the ubiuitous Indian cooking poth designs and motifs in jewelry pottery and sealsi games of dicej an early form of chessk the humble lota Indians use to wash up even todayl the practice of applying sindoor vermilionm and some measurement systems5 The Aryans were NOT a Harappan Civilization people6 The absence of genetic signatures proves that NO Out of India migration spread Indo European languages around the world Had it been so anytime before or after the Harappan Civilization we would see genetic footprints of the First Indians all over from Central Asia to Western Europe But there are no close relatives of the First Indians anywhere else in the worldThe chapter on the Harappans has fascinating details about the civilization Some of them are1 One striking feature is the lack of representation of violence between humans The seals which depict violence involve either supernatural beings and humans or animals and humans2 Almost every house had a toilet3 At its height the Harappan Civilization covered a million suare kilometers about a third of today s India Still it was knit together through common standards of weights seals script and city design It seems to have been less conflict prone than the Egyptian and Mesopotamian counterparts4 Lavish palaces temples and burial sites are conspicuous by their absence It was probably held together by an elite group who shared power rather than through a powerful king5 The Harappans used a script which is called Proto Elamite but has not yet been deciphered It is an early form of the Dravidian languages of today s South India McAlpin lists eighty one words with close correspondence between the Harappan language and south India s Dravidian languages like TamilThe author goes on to correct other false conceptions about India The Marxian view of India is that of an unchanging India Whereas the Hindu nationalist view of India is that it has degraded over time from the Vedic perfection of time immemorial The author argues that both are wrong and based on misconceptions India has been ever changing and dynamic Its history has been full of energy as any lively society s history would be All this in spite of the dead weight of casteism that it has carried now for two thousand yearsPandit Jawaharlal Nehru described the essence of India with the phrase Unity in Diversity This book shows that it is not an empty phrase but an eminently appropriate one Tony Joseph uotes Dr David Reich that genetically it is wrong to view India as having a tremendously large population The Han Chinese are genetically a genuinely large population because they have been mixing freely for thousands of years In contrast the degree of genetic differentiation among Indian jati groups living side by side in the same village is typically two or three times higher than the genetic divergence between even northern and southern Europeans So few if any Indian groups are demographically large The truth is that India is composed of a large number of small populations Nehru was spot on in describing India as embodying Unity in Diversity The book spans multiple disciplines covering genetics philology and archaeology It is an outstanding example of writing with clarity It also shows the marvelous way the scientific method works I hope textbooks on India s pre history would be updated to include these recent findings A book that every Indian interested in his or her origins must read

Read & Download Õ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Tony Joseph

Read & Download Õ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Tony Joseph Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4 Tony Joseph µ 4 Read Heavily on path breaking DNA research of recent years But it also presents earlier archaeological and linguistic evidence all in an entertaining and highly readable manner A hugely significant book Early Indians authoritatively and bravely puts to rest several ugly debates on the ancestry of modern Indians It not only shows us how the modern Indian population came to be composed as it is but also reveals an undeniable and important truth about who we are we are all migrants And we are all mixed. Two terms that refer to linguistic groups are widely misunderstood in India and taken to be racial denominators that split the country into two demographic zones in the north and the south We know them as Aryan and Dravidian The former is broadly associated with the north and the latter with the south commonly in the state of Tamil Nadu Scholars are divided on the issue of paternity of the Harappan Civilization 2500 1900 BCE that marked the foundation of later socio religious development in India A few scholars argue that Harappa was made possible by Aryan effort and the Vedic literature was composed there Dravidian scholars indignantly claim that the Harappan culture was a Dravidian one which was destroyed by the Aryans who then set the inhabitants on an exodus to the south Literary archeological and epigraphic evidence could not break the stalemate even now This book comes up with genetic data to finally decide what is what Tony Joseph is a columnist and contributor to leading newspapers and magazines He is also a former editor of Businessworld No formal training in history or archeology is mentioned in any of the personal introductions of the author found onlineJoseph banks on the recently acuired ability of scientific establishment to successfully extract and analyse DNA from ancient fossils and map its genome This helps to compare it with modern DNA and find out the era in which they diverged genetically It has also produced some truly astounding conclusions It is gratifying to learn that DNA evidence is conclusive that humans originated in Africa and all of them now living outside that continent are descendants of a single population of migrants who moved out of Africa to Asia around 70000 years ago A group among them reached India too and the author calls them First Indians They mixed with later entrants but serve as bedrock of genetic ancestry to all modern Indians But there are closer direct descendants to them with little mixing with later societies The Onge tribe in Little Andamans numbering about 100 souls is the closest relative of the First Indians However the author suggests to Indians a simple method to physically view the other descendants of the First Indians look at a mirror Genetic data brings to light interesting facts about the ancestry of modern Indians 70 90 per cent of people in the current Indian population originated from a single woman among the First Indians who arrived 65000 years ago while only 10 40 per cent can trace their descent to a single man in that society This means that most of the later migrations were sexually biased towards the maleIndia witnessed further migrations but the author identifies the influx of Iranian agriculturists from the Zagros Mountains in 7000 3000 BCE as the first notable wave after the event that happened 65000 years ago These people Joseph calls them Dravidians introduced the art of agriculture in India The earliest agricultural experiment took place in a 200 hectare area in the remote village of Mehrgarh in Balochistan around 7000 2600 BCE The next wave occurred in the interval 2000 1000 BCE Multiple waves of steppe pastoralists calling themselves Aryans from central Asia brought Indo European languages and new cultural practices to south Asia If the author is to be believed these two migrations account for the ancestry of 95 per cent of the modern Indian population Scientific studies repeatedly show that the genetic imprint of the First Indians is carried by all castes and tribes of the country in all regions and all linguistic groups This is uniue to India in the world The author is careful not to antagonize powerful public opinion Instead of using misnomers like Aryan and Dravidian he uses expressions such as Ancestral North Indians ANI and Ancestral South Indians ASI where in fact he should have plainly stated that we are the result of the admixture of the First Indians and West Eurasians seen in varying percentages among the two groupsThis book upholds the scholarly consensus that Aryans did not destroy the Harappan Civilization During 1900 1300 BCE in the Late Harappan period the civilization declined and eventually disappeared This was primarily due to unusually long spells of drought probably caused by changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulations This severely affected other civilizations in Egypt West Asia and China as well The prolonged drought ultimately made monsoonal rivers go dry or become seasonal affecting habitability along their courses There is no archeological evidence that the Aryans destroyed the Harappan Civilization On the other hand there are ample indicators that they merged into it This is clear from the reducing discrepancy between the Vedic texts and Harappan Civilization over time The later the Vedic text there is likelihood of finding connections to Harappan cultural heritage The author also lists out a few examples In another section he argues that after 2000 BCE when the Late Harappan Civilization was already in decline steppe pastoralists who took Indo European languages to Europe reached India bringing with them an early version of Sanskrit and related cultural concepts and practices such as ritual sacrifices These newly arrived Indo European language speakers called themselves Aryans p142Contrary to the claims of the Dravidian political movement that they are the original inhabitants of India this book affirms that they too have come to India as migrants but a few millennia before the Aryans did Dravidian languages show clear linguistic affinity to the Elamite language spoken in ancient Iran This book makes a delightful comparison of ten common words in Proto Elamite and modern Dravidian languages which are strikingly similar Joseph surmises that a band of herders from southern and central Zagros region migrated to south Asia as speakers of the Proto Elamite language sometime after 7000 BCE mixed with the First Indians and this new mixed population sparked an agricultural revolution in the north western region of India and then went on to create the Harappan Civilization over the next few millennia p136 Hence it is definitely DravidianThe author makes a cursory analysis of the caste system and arrives at a year in which it solidified with an exercise that is mostly conjecture Aryans originated in the Eurasian steppes around 2500 BCE as seen by the presence of haplogroup R1a among the ancient DNA collected from these regions Many Indians still carry this uniue variation in their DNA This R1a group is reported to be having about twice as high an incidence rate among Brahmins than other lower castes Genetic studies show extensive admixture between different Indian populations between 2200 BCE and 100 CE This is indicative of exogamy and absence of endogamous castes The mixing came to an abrupt end sometime around 100 CE It is guessed that a new ideology which had gained ground and power imposed on the society new social restrictions and a new way of life possibly in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Mauryan Empire The caste system had arrived in this way and the author mocks that it cut the country into tukdetukde pieces borrowing the vocabulary of television news channel discussions in 2018The book s content is very logically argued and pleasing to read However it relies too much on genetics research papers that have not yet received wide acceptance Joseph himself admits that such papers often show contradictory findings p11 He also concedes that even in the most professional of settings personal preferences can play a part in how research findings are interpreted p11 Judging from the author s remarks in the book it is fairly evident that he has built an edifice that harbours his pre existing convictions on the genetic development of Indian populations The research that had gone into the text does not appear to be so deep as some best seller books such as Harari s Sapiens are listed as references and material for further reading All in all this book is a good effort to buttress the left liberal outlook of Indian history It is by no means impartialThe book is highly recommended


10 thoughts on “Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4

  1. says: Tony Joseph µ 4 Read Read & Download Õ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Tony Joseph Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4

    Read & Download Õ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Tony Joseph Tony Joseph µ 4 Read Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4 Indians are a people who are always a bit confused about their identity as “Indians” – maybe because the nation itself is a relatively recent construct not ignoring the mythical “Bharata” and the regional and caste identities are strongly embedded Ever since the West discovered the mystic East there have been attempts to create an Indian past which is wholly spiritual – based on the mythical Vedic “Aryan

  2. says: Read & Download Õ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Tony Joseph Tony Joseph µ 4 Read Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4

    Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4 India has had a weird relationship with its history prior to Mauryan empire History by its nature is imprecise but in this case confusion is compounded by the fact that Harappan script remains undeciphered and there are very few archaeological remains of Vedic society The confusion has only been furthered by ideologically

  3. says: review Early Indians Read & Download Õ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Tony Joseph Tony Joseph µ 4 Read

    Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4 review Early Indians Everyone in our subcontinent Pakistanis Indians Bangladeshis please read EARLY INDIANS by Tony Joseph Understand w

  4. says: Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4

    review Early Indians Tony Joseph µ 4 Read Read & Download Õ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Tony Joseph As India enters the third decade of the twenty first century one would presume that modern science would form the focus of an emerging nation of young people like India But uantum computing artificial intelligence and advanced medical research do not dominate the conversations Instead India is bogged down by uestions such

  5. says: Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4

    Tony Joseph µ 4 Read Read & Download Õ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Tony Joseph Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4 Tony Joseph’s new book “Early Indians The Story of Our Ancestors and Where We Came From” attempts to sell the colonial Aryan Invasion Theory's insidious 21st century version the Aryan Migration Myth on the

  6. says: review Early Indians Tony Joseph µ 4 Read Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4

    Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4 review Early Indians There is an image of the famous dancing girl of Harappa on the cover of this book as a nod perhaps to common knowledge that Early Indians for most of us refers to the Harappan Civilization Then we are told came the Aryans who somehow settled peacefully or not with the Harappans Think of it have you ever asked

  7. says: Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4

    review Early Indians Tony Joseph µ 4 Read Read & Download Õ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Tony Joseph The whole book was based on the Aryan Invasion theory It is good to note that there is some evidence which debunks this theory Rakhigarhi DNA study uestions Aryan invasion theory claims the authorThe findings are based on the study of the ancient genome in the skeletons excavated from RakhigarhiRead ateconomictimesindiatimescomarticlesIn the later parts of the book the author claimed there was a shred of arch

  8. says: Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4

    Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4 Tony Joseph µ 4 Read After Rakhigarhi study this book is very outdated now In his book he claimed there is decisive proof that Vedic Aryas were foreigners who entered India from Central Asia around 1500 BC and brought Vedic Sanskrit and Vedic religion with them In twitter after Rakhigarhi study He says Harappan genome lacks ancestry from Iranian farmers But in his book published a few months ago Tony completely contradicts himself and claims Harappan Genome is

  9. says: Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4 Tony Joseph µ 4 Read Read & Download Õ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Tony Joseph

    Tony Joseph µ 4 Read Read & Download Õ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Tony Joseph review Early Indians Two terms that refer to linguistic groups are widely misunderstood in India and taken to be racial denominators that split the country into two demographic zones in the north and the south We know them as ‘Aryan’ and ‘Dravidian’ The former is broadly associated with the north and the latter with the south commonly in the state of Tamil Nadu Scholars are divided on the issue of paternity of the Harappan Civilizati

  10. says: Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4 Read & Download Õ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook µ Tony Joseph

    review Early Indians Early Indians Read & Download ↠ 4 Where did the first Indians come from? Who were the Harappans really? Who were the ‘Aryans’ who wrote the Rigveda and are supposed to have fostered the ‘Brahminical culture’ that has been so integral a part of Indian life for so many c

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  • Hardcover
  • 256
  • Early Indians
  • Tony Joseph
  • English
  • 03 April 2018
  • 9789386228987